Though the gap in the power of Russia and China widens, their cooperation is going on increasingly smoothly. The countries conduct military exercises together and exchange technology, filling each other’s blind spots. At the same time, Beijing is increasing its economic presence and becoming a player in the EU’s immediate neighbourhood – it’s stance is, however, not always in line with Moscow. How will these relations evolve in the coming years? What will their impact in the EU’s Eastern neighbourhood be? How can Europe respond to challenges arising from these processes?